Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) Background, History, and Why We Monitor
Under the Clean Water Act (CWA), States must identify water bodies (streams, lakes, rivers, etc.) that are not meeting water quality standards. Pollutants causing impairments to local streams include bacteria, nutrients (ammonia, nitrates, and phosphorus), sediment, and temperature. The CWA also includes a process for calculating total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). TMDLs define the theoretical amount of pollutants that can be present in a given waterbody without causing impairments to its designated beneficial uses (e.g., swimming, irrigation, fish rearing and spawning). Waterbodies can have multiple TMDLs, which are completed periodically for a set number of pollutants. The allowable contribution is divided up among sources in the watershed including urban, agricultural, forestry, and natural (background) sources. Designated Management Agencies (DMAs) are also identified through the process. DMAs are responsible for meeting the TMDL requirements and must implement actions to improve water quality conditions over time and track progress by monitoring and other methods.
TMDLs were completed for Bear Creek in 1992 and 2008. Central Point, Medford, Phoenix, Talent, Ashland, Jacksonville, Jackson County, Medford Irrigation District, Talent Irrigation District, and Rogue River Valley Irrigation Districts were identified as the DMAs. As a result, plans were developed and are being implemented to meet TMDL goals. Key components include water quality monitoring, implementing low impact development (LID) strategies, restoring riparian areas, and providing educational outreach programs.
The Rogue Valley Council of Governments (RVCOG) has performed water quality sampling and analysis in the Bear Creek Watershed since the 1960s.The monitoring program was initially developed to help the cities of Central Point, Medford, Phoenix, Talent, Ashland, Jacksonville, and Jackson County identify what kinds of pollutants (if any) were causing a problem to local waters. Bear Creek was identified as a water quality limited stream leading to the development of the initial TMDL in 1992, the second in Oregon following the Tualatin River. Additional requirements focusing on bacteria and temperature were established in 2008. Following the new TMDL and the need to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation program, a study was completed to restructure the monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the TMDL programs. Changes were initiated in July of 2011.
Current Programs (Ongoing)
1. Effectiveness Monitoring Program: In July 2011, the monitoring program was changed to reflect recommendations from an effectiveness monitoring program study. The study recommended changing the program to implement a 5-year program to focus on evaluating the effectiveness of implementation projects being completed throughout the watershed. Changes to the program included adding additional sites, removing several sites, changing sampling parameters (adding and removing parameters), and changing sampling procedures. Maps (GPS’d Google Earth Image), data, and other information will be added to this page as they become available. Data collected under the program is being evaluated by EPA and others with funding support for additional work provided by a 319 grant.
2. Illicit Discharge (Storm Drains and Hot Spot): This portion of the monitoring program continues the sampling framework and procedures established in the previous sampling program. Illicit discharge monitoring involves sampling several storm drains in each DMA, three times per year. Samples are collected during the summer (dry weather), and during two storm events (first flush and wet weather). The second portion of the program is the hot spot monitoring program which allows RVCOG to serve as a point of contact for water quality concerns and also provides for a limited sampling program for investigating concerns.
To report a complaint:
- Call the DEQ Complaint Hotline at 1-888-997-7888 or visit the DEQ website for more information.
- Refer to the appropriate Agency or Local Contact using the Hot Spot Contact List Updated July 2019.
- Document the complaint or concern using photos.
- By request, RVCOG can investigate complaints. Contact Greg Stabach at (541) 423-1370. RVCOG keeps an ongoing record of complaints and field investigations.
3. Penninger Fire Water Quality Monitoring: On the afternoon of Tuesday, July 17th, 2018, a fire started along Bear Creek near the Family Fun Center in Central Point, burning approximately 97 acres. We are evaluating the impact of the fire on Bear Creek by collecting and analyzing samples from two locations, one upstream (Pine Street Bridge) and one downstream (Upton Road) of the fire area, three times per year (dry weather, first flush, and wet weather). Temperature, conductivity, turbidity, pH, metals (lead, cadmium, zinc and iron), and nitrates are recorded in the field and lab. RVCOG is collecting samples and analyzing most of the data in the lab with Neilson Research Corporation assessing metals and nitrates and students from the Crater Renaissance Academy “Land Lab” recording temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and pH readings at the downstream site.
View of burned area and restoration from the RVCOG drone.
4. QA/QC Sampling: This program is conducted as part of the effectiveness monitoring program. The Quality Assurance/Quality Control program consists of both external measures (e.g., split sampling with DEQ) and internal measures (splits, duplicates, blanks).
5. Temperature Study: Starting in May 2015, the Rogue River Watershed Council, The Freshwater Trust, Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife, Jackson Soil and Water Conservation District, and RVCOG teamed together to implement a temperature study to identify potential cold water refugia areas in Bear Creek. Multiple temperature data loggers were deployed at various locations along Bear Creek. Data collected is analyzed annually and loggers locations are adjusted based on data results. The loggers were re-deployed in 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019.
Temperature logger and housing being placed in Bear Creek in Phoenix.
6. Public Education and Awareness:
During the summer months, RVCOG releases a public notice advisory for streams that test over the water quality standards for bacteria, such as E. coli
(absolute standard for a single sample of >406 MPN). The release is an advisory notice only and does not
result in the closures of local streams to contact recreation. It does, however ask residents to take precautions when in contact with the water. Press releases are sent out as needed (based on sampling results). Limited information exists on popular swimming areas in the region. The best information available can be found on the Waterkeeper Swim Guide website
7. Student Watershed Assessment Teams, OSU Extension: Beginning in late October, students from Chris Vanness’ class at LOGOS Charter School, with help from Kara Baylog, Program Coordinator Forestry and Natural Resources, collected water quality and macroinvertebrate data at 6 sites along Bear Creek and Larson Creek. Students will continue monitoring water quality and macroinvertebrates through January, as well as collect vegetation data. Students follow both OSU Extension and Salmon Watch protocols for their collection. Data can be viewed here: SWAT – 10-25-19.
Results from the monitoring are used in meeting the TMDL requirements, in project effectiveness monitoring, to prioritize restoration projects, and for long term watershed health evaluation. The monitoring program operates under a DEQ-approved Quality Assurance/Quality Control Plan, and RVCOG’s data has been consistently rated as high quality data by DEQ.
Other Program Elements: Annual water quality reports, quarterly TMDL meetings, education and outreach, and serving as a point of contact for water quality concerns.
Water Quality Standards
Water quality standards are benchmarks established to assess whether the quality of Oregon’s rivers and lakes is adequate for fish and other aquatic life, recreation, drinking, agriculture, industry and other uses. Water quality standards are also regulatory tools used by DEQ and the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prevent pollution of our waters. States are required to adopt water quality standards by the CWA. States submit their standards to EPA for approval.
Monitoring Program Partners
The monitoring program is funded by the Cities of Ashland, Talent, Phoenix, Medford, Central Point, and Jacksonville, Jackson County, and the Department of Agriculture (ODA). Other partners that participate in the program include the Department of Forestry (ODF), Rogue Valley Sewer Services (RVSS), and DEQ. Lab space for analyzing samples is donated by the the City of Medford.
Click on the links below for more information on the monitoring program:
Monitoring Data and Reports (DRAFT)
July 1st, 2015 – June 30th, 2017
July 1st, 2017 – June 30th, 2018
July 1st, 2018 – December 31st, 2018
January 1, 2019 – June 30th, 2019 (under internal review)
Current TMDL Trends
Storm Drain Monitoring
July 1st, 2018 – June 30th, 2019 (under review)
2013-2018 – Stormdrain Monitoring Report
2013-2018 – Stormdrain Data
2013-2018 – Stormdrain Trends